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      山西福利彩票

      发布时间:2019-12-14 07:56:53 来源:迷球网

        山西福利彩票Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  

        Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.

        Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

        Nation'sforeignexchangeholdingsdropby$36.6bfromJanuarytoAprilChina's$3.12trillionforeignexchangereservemayfurtherdeclineunderthepressureofcapitaloutflows,saidexperts,predictingastrongerU.S.dollarsupportedbytheFed'spossibleinterestratehikeinJune.Thenation'sforeignexchangereserves,whichwereusedasacurrencydefensewhentheyuansufferedstrongdepreciationpressuretwoyearsago,hasdropped$36.6billionfromJanuarytoApril,after12monthsofgrowthsinceFebruary2017,accordingtodatafromthecentralbank.DuetothecontinuallystrengtheningU.S.dollar,onMonday,theonshoreChineseyuan'sspotexchangeratehititslowestlevelsinceJan23to6.3888perdollar,andtheoffshoreyuandeclinedby150pointstolowerthan6.38onthesametradingday.The10-yearU.S.Treasuryyields,whichusuallyhaveapositivecorrelationwiththeU.S.dollarandtheFederalfundsrate,exceeded3.1percentlastweek,upfrom2.8percentamonthearlier,thehighestlevelsinceMay2011,whichhassparkedturbulenceinsomeemergingmarketsincludingArgentinaandTurkey.Regionalfinancialvulnerabilityisemergingasthoseemergingeconomiesincreasedinterestratestodealwithsurgingcapitaloutflows,resultingindebtriskexposure.ZhouXiaochuan,formergovernorofthePeople'sBankofChina,thecentralbank,warnedhissuccessorsinaspeechattheweekend"tokeepacloseeyeonwhatwillhappennext"ifthe10-yearU.S.Treasuryyieldscontinuetoriseandthedollar'sstrengthwanes.Heespeciallymentionedthatfinancialvulnerabilitycouldbestimulatedbycapitaloutflowsinemergingeconomies,especiallythosethathavelargedebts."Theinteractiveimpactofsmall-probabilityeventscouldleadtosignificantresults,"hesaid.TheChina-U.S.interestratedifferentialisusuallyseenasoneofthekeyfactorsinfluencingthepaceanddirectionofcross-bordercapitalflows.AhigherU.S.interestratewillattractmorecapitalintoitscapitalmarketseekinghigherinvestmentreturns.Theinterestrategapwasabout90basispointsinAprilwhenChinesecentralbankGovernorYiGangidentifieditwasin"acomfortablerange"forbalancedcapitalflows.Nowthegaphasfallento60basispoints."Ifthereweremajorfundoutflowsandexcessivemarketvolatility,thecentralbankcouldbepressuredtohikelocalinterestratestosupportthecurrencyandavertundermininginvestorconfidence,"saidJonathanCornish,ananalystwiththeglobalcreditratingsagencyFitchRatings.Butanylocalrateincreasecouldpressuretheassetqualityofdomesticenterprisesandincreasefundingcosts,especiallygiventhecurrenthighlevelofprivate-sectorcreditinChina,althoughthePBOChasrespondedtorecentFedhikes,accordingtoCornish,whopredictedtheFed'sfundratetobe2.50percentattheyearendand3.25percentby2019.PedroMartins,chiefemergingmarketsequitystrategistandheadofLatAmEquityResearchwithJPMorgan,predictedthatU.S.policyratesshouldgraduallymoveupwardwithintwoyears,andthecentralbankbalancesheetnormalizationwilllikelyresultinrisinglong-termratesovertimeinemergingmarkets."Thereislimitedroomforfurthersovereignspreadcompressionacrossemergingmarkets,"hesaid."Thedriversbehindemergingmarkets'economicgrowtharegrowinglargeandincludeasolidpickupinglobaltradefuelingmorebenignemergingmarketdynamicsviaasustainedriseinprivatesectorconfidenceandthecreditimpulseturningpositiveforthefirsttimesince2014."  PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.PhototakenonJuly12,2018showswaterdischargingfromtheThreeGorgesDam,agigantichydropowerprojectontheYangtzeRiver,inYichangCity,centralChina'sHubeiProvince.(Xinhua/WenZhenxiao)Chinatookagreenpathinpowergenerationduringthe2014-2018period,withthecontinuousexpansionofcleanenergyproduction,thefourthnationaleconomiccensusshowed.In2018,thecountry'spowergenerationhit7.1trillionkilowatt-hours(kwh),up31.3percentfrom2013,accordingtoareportonthefourtheconomiccensusreleasedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsMonday.ThegrowthofpowergenerationinChina'swesternregionledallregionsinthefive-yearperiod,increasing42.3percentfrom2013,thankstotheexploitationofcleanenergyandtheconstructionofpowertransmissionchannels,saidthereport.Inbreakdown,thermalpowergenerationincreased20percentfrom2013to5.1trillionkwh,muchlowerthanthe71.8-percentgrowthrateofcleanenergyproduction.Theproportionofthermalpowerproductiondecreased6.7percentagepointsto71.5percentofthecountry'stotalcleanpowergeneration.Hydropoweroutputreached1.23trillionkwhin2018,reportingthelargestoutputincleanenergygeneration,up6percentonaverageeachyearinthe2014-2018period.Solarpowerproductionhit153.6billionkwhin2018,surging57.2percentonaverageeachyearfrom2014,thereportshowed.Windpowergenerationgrewatanannualaveragerateof20.3percentto355.3billionkwhin2018,withtheoutputoftheInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegionaccountingfor17.7percentofthetotalwindoutputnationwide.Nuclearpowerproductionhadmaintainedagrowthrateofover15percentforfiveconsecutiveyearsbytheendof2018,withtheoutputat294.4billionkwhin2018,saidthereport.Chinahasadoptedaslewofmeasurestoencouragethedevelopmentofcleanenergy,includingbuildingvastsolarandwindfarms,withtheaimtomakenon-fossilenergymeet20percentofitsenergyneedsby2030.

        CarrieLamChengYuet-ngor.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)HongKongChiefExecutiveCarrieLamChengYuet-ngorexpressedherdeepconcernsthatviolencehasspreadtothecity'sschools,posingahugesafetythreat,aftertworemote-controlled,fullyfunctional,homemadeexplosivedeviceswerefoundanddefusedatasecondaryschoolcampusonMonday.SpeakingtothemediabeforeaweeklyExecutiveCouncilmeeting,LamsaidonTuesdaythebroadparticipationofstudentsinmonthsofunresthasbeenveryalarmingandworryingasstudentsarrestedoverthepastsixmonthscamefrommorethan300schools.AlsoonMonday,sixstudentsandateacherwerearrestedinSheungShui,NewTerritories,onsuspicionofplottingtoblockroadswithbarricades,accordingtopolice.LamhasaskedSecretaryforEducationKevinYeungtoseriouslyfollowuponcasesinvolvingteacherscurrentlyunderarrest.Shealsocalledonschoolstocontinuetopreventstudentsfromengaginginunlawfulactivitiesandtokeepthemawayfromviolence.Ofthe6,022peoplearrestedsinceJune,40percentwerestudents,policesaidonMonday.Thecity'sEducationBureaurequiredlocalschoolslastmonthtodisciplinethosestudentswhotookpartinunlawfulactivitiessuchasdisruptingsubwaytrainsandblockedmajorroads,leadingtoaweeklongsuspensionofclassesatprimaryandsecondaryschools.ThisisthefirsttimehomemadebombswerefoundatasecondaryschoolsincetheextraditionbillincidentstartedinJune.Theremote-controlledbombs,foundonthecampusofWahYanCollege,asecondaryschoolinWanChai,HongKongIsland,weresubsequentlydefusedbytheHongKongpoliceonMondayevening."Bothofthesedeviceshaveonlyonefunction,tokillandtomaimpeople,giventhequantitiesoftheexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,"AlickMcWhirter,aspecialistsuperintendentintheHongKongPoliceExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalBureau,saidatamediabriefingonMonday.Thebombscontainedatotalofabout10kilogramsofhighexplosivesandfragmentationmaterial,accordingtoMcWhirter.Theradio-controlleddeviceswere"fullyfunctionalandreadytobeused",hesaid,addingthatthebombs'rangewasbetween50and100meters.Policewillattempttorevealtheperpetrator'sidentity,motiveandtarget,aswellastheincident'sconnectionwithrecentviolentactivities,HongKongPoliceOrganizedCrimeandTriadBureauSeniorSuperintendentLiKwai-wahtoldthemediaonMonday.Lisaidmakingorpossessingexplosivesisaseriouscrimesubjecttoupto14yearsimprisonment.Anyoneusinganyexplosivesubstancetocauseanexplosionlikelytoendangerlifeorcauseseriousinjurytopropertyisliabletolifeimprisonment,hewarned.WahYanCollegeresumedclassesonTuesdayafterpolicethoroughlyinspectedthecampusandconfirmeditwassafeandsecure.Theschoolissuedastatementexpressinggratitudetothepoliceforkeepingthecampussafeandpledgedtofullycooperatewithpoliceintheirinvestigation.LamalsodismissedrumorsTuesdaythatlocalofficialswouldbereshuffled,sayingrestoringlawandorderandpromotingthecity'seconomicandsocialdevelopmentwereherimmediatepriorities.DonorsofanairpurifiersetitupatakindergarteninHandan,Hebeiprovince.(PhotobyHAOQUNYING/FORCHINADAILY)GuidelineissuedinanefforttoreduceharmfrompollutionassmoghitscitiesPublicplaces,especiallyelementaryandsecondaryschools,areencouragedtoinstallairpurifierstoreduceharmfromairpollution,accordingtoaguidelinereleasedbytheNationalHealthCommission."OfficebuildingsandgymsarealsoadvisedtohaveairpurificationsystemsorairpurifierstoreducePM2.5concentrations,"accordingtotheguidelinereleasedbythecommissionlastweek.Indensely-populatedplaces,centralventilationsystemsarerecommendedtopreventtheconcentrationofcarbondioxide,theguidelinesaid.Further,inplacesthatalreadyhaveairconditionersitisbettertoinstallequipmentthatcanfilterouttiny,fineparticleswithadiameterof2.5micrometersorless,accordingtotheguideline.Smokingshouldbeprohibitedinallpublicplaces,italsoemphasized."Exposuretofineparticlescancauseshort-termhealtheffectssuchaseye,nose,throatandlungirritation,aswellascoughing,sneezing,runnynoseandshortnessofbreath,"theguidelinesaid."Itcanalsoaffectlungfunctionandworsenmedicalconditionssuchasasthmaandheartdisease.Long-termexposuretoPM2.5willalsoincreaserespiratoryandcardiovascularproblems,aswellashospitaladmissions,"itsaid.Moreover,theguidelineexplainedthatsmogwillreduceultravioletradiation,whichmayresultindepression,anincreaseofbacteriaandrickets-askeletaldisorderthatleadstosoftandweakbonesinchildren.AsairpollutionhitsmanyChinesecities,educationdepartmentsinsomeareashavetakenactiontopromoteairpurifiersatschoolsinrecentyears.In2017,educationauthoritiesinZhengzhou,capitalofHenanprovince,announcedthatairpurifierswouldbeinstalledinallitsschoolsandkindergartens.Thatsameyear,theBeijingMunicipalEducationCommissionannouncedthatcityfinanceswillbeusedtopayforthepurchaseandinstallationofairpurifiersinlocalelementaryandmiddleschools.WeiYun,motherofa4-year-oldboyinBeijing,saidanairpurificationsystemhadbeeninstalledinherson'skindergartenbeforeheenteredhisclassinSeptemberlastyear.Butinotherkindergartens,suchastheoneherfriend'schildisinnow,shesaidairpurifierswerenotinstalleduntiltheparentsraisedfundstobuyonelastyear.OutdoorairqualityhasimprovedacrossChinainrecentyearsduetopollutioncontrolefforts.Lastyear,theaverageconcentrationofPM2.5in338majorcitiesinChinawas39mcgpercubicmeter,adecreaseof9.3percentyear-on-year,accordingtotheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment."Thefineparticulateisevenmoreharmfultotheelderly,childrenandpregnantpeople,"saidTaoShu,environmentalprofessoratPekingUniversity."Weshouldpaymoreattentiontoindoorairpollutionassurveysshowthatmostpeoplespendmorethan22hoursadayindoors."Withtheongoingemissionreductionefforts,itisestimatedthatatleast95percentofcitiesinChinacanachievethetargetofreducingPM2.5concentrationto35mcgpercubicmeterby2035,accordingtoTao.

      责编:圣俊远

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